By: Sayed Hassan Samedi
Different definitions have taken place from cartoon and caricature. The illustrated encyclopedia of art says, it is the picture of an individual or individuals that their certain characteristics be exaggerated deliberately for mockery.
As we know, cartoon has been made of two parts of form and content. Form of cartoon is made of lines, dots, polishing, knitting and linking of situations to express and transfer a meaning. These situations express messages.
In order to reflect and similarize the individuals situations and characters, display then exaggeratingly and strongly. A cartoonist who creates a subject, he/she illustrates it with signs, interesting forms and symbols.
A cartoonist should have essential knowledge of quality of symbols’ language. Contradiction, opposition and disagreement, make the essence of a cartoon. A cartoonist combines all dots, lines and arrangements with the help of imagination and produces a charismatic and interesting figures.
Since 19th century or according to a narration 16th century, cartoons was published during the age of religious involvement with church in form of night letter. But in Afghanistan in 1930s, the acknowledged Ustad Abdul Ghafoor Breshna had created caricatures of Ajab Khan and Rajab Khan and published them in Kabul media. Later on late Ustad Ghulam Ali Omed had also drawn some cartoons.
On late 40s a skilled and laborious cartoonist appeared in media with his cartoons, late Dr. Abdurrahim Naween.
Zhowandoon weekly had published a lot of critical political cartoons that opened a new page in the cartoon in the country. In the 40s and 50s as well as 12th and 13th rounds of national assembly in which free media had taken shape, Terjuman weekly was published in interesting, desirable and unprecedented form with bantering articles with the efforts of late Ustad Ali Asghar Bashir Herawi. Beside that it published cartoons and caricatures too. For example Khamir Khan and Fateer Khan of two candidate lawmakers who displayed symbols of corruption and opportunism. Late Dr. Naween was the main planner and cartoonist.
It should be said that although cartoons and caricatures were also published in other newspapers and weeklies but cartoons in Tarjuman weekly had presented particular charisma. It should be mention that newspaper and weekly without cartoon looks to soup without meat and salt that lacks taste and quality.
If we talk on difference of cartoon and caricature, a cartoon is more complicated with several meanings and diverse reflections while caricature is simple withless conent. In other word, many caricatures are possible to be inserted in a cartoon. Beside late Dr. Naween, other artiests including Hozhba Shinwari, Attiqullah Shaheed, Hassan Samedi, Alizadah, Habibi and others have also made indefatigable efforts in this phase who could not be ignored.