The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.

Jirga; an accepted tradition of Afghans

لویه جرگه 1

As an accepted and fruitful order and tradition, Jirga is one of the national values of noble Afghan people that enjoys the position of law and principle. In our country, Afghanistan, Jirga starts from family which was common among Aryayees since 2500 BC with executive authority. The upcoming consultative Jirga will be invited as per item 7 of the article 64th and item No one of article 111 of the constitution in order to consult and decide in emergency situation.
Chronological (historical) explanation of Jirga:
The importance of Jirga resolution is in decision of trible elders. During the Aryayees, Vidi era and Avesta civilization two jirgas were common among people that were called as Sabha or common people Jirga and Simithee or elders Jirga.
Jirga during Kanishka era (125-126) AD in which over 300 religious scholars had been invited and was convened in Kapisa, Bagram. The participants explained Kanishka propagations and religious issues in favor of rulers in Kabul, Kapisa and Peshawar. According to prominent Afghan researcher and historian Prof Habibi, the 4th Jirga was held with the participation of over 500 people in Sirinegar, city of Kashmir. The next Jirga was organized in Jelandhar area in New Delhi which was the capital of Temorids rulers during the era of Bayazid Roshan s/o Abdullah Ormal Ansari (949-988) solar year against their oppression and felonies. Roshan took their permission to fight them and started his struggle practically and this movement was later known as Roshanids Movement.
Between (1668-1670AD) our great warrior and poet Khoshhal Khan Baba held another Jirga to fight Owrangzeb.
A Loya Jirga was held in 1708AD during reign of Mirwais Naika in Kokran area of Kandahar and the second Jirga during Mirwais Khan was also held in Kandahar city during which the participants sworn on a Holy Quran, a naked sword and water and salt to fight against Gorgin Safawid in 1710AD in Manja village, Shahr-e-Safa in which representatives from all tribes had attended and as a result, Beglar Begi Gorgin was killed and his army was eliminated and Mirwais Khan was chosen as national leader.
38 years later another Jirga was held in 1747AD in Sher-e-Sorkh village and last nine lays and as result in autumn of that year, Ahmad Khan Abdali (Ahmad Shah Baba) was elected as king who managed to establish a vast empire.
During the reign of Amir Sher Ali Khan in 1865AD a Jirga was held in Tapa Maranjan village with the participation of 200 representatives and discussed domestic problems of the government and restoration of security. During the reign of Amir Habibullah Khan in 1915AD a Jirga was convened in Kabul with the participation of 540 people and it was decided that Afghanistan should be impartial in the WWI.
Three jirgas were invited during the reign of late Ghazi and progressive King Amanullah Khan. The first in 1301 solar year (March 1922 AD) in Jalalabad city with the participation of 878 people and approved a constitution with 73 articles. The second and third jirgas were invited in Paghman, discussed important national issues and issued resolutions.
In 1930 during the reign of king Mohammad Nader Shah a loya Jirga was held in Kabul with the participation of 301 people out of which 150 representatives were selected for the national assembly.
Later on in 1334 solar (1955) during the reign of King Mohammad Zaher Shah a loya Jirga was held and rejected Durand Line which was created in 1893.
The second loya Jirga was held during the same king in 1343 solar (1964) that approved a constitution of Democracy with 11 chapters and 128 articles. During the republican regime of late president Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan in 1355 solar (1976) another loya Jirga was invited that approved a new constitution and elected the president.
In 1363 solar (1984) during the reign of Babrak Karmal a loya Jirga of ulema and Clergymen was invited.
During the era of late president Dr. Najeebullah in 1366 (1987), a Jirga was invited with the participation of over 1500 people in Kabul and beside other issues, over 5000 prisoners were also released.
During the reign of ex-president Hamid Karzai in 1381 (2002) an emergency loya Jirga was invited in Kabul. In 2003, a constitutional loya Jirga was invited in Kabul and approved a new constitution with 12 chapters and 162 articles and was initiated by the president.
The upcoming consultative loya Jirga is expected to be held on Monday Apr 29,2018 under president Ghani.
Abdul Hadi Quraishi

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The Kabul times, Afghanistan Trustable News Agency.