By: Dr. Abdul Hadi Quraishi
Environment and climate change issues are a considerable problem to the world people and the UN. Although essential measures have been adopted on this issue but not completely implemented.
The industrial countries have adopted special laws to prevent water contamination and air pollution and sea waters. But still there are many problems on greenhouse gases, ozon level and increasing garbages of factories who produce poisonous gases and pose a threat to animates, wild life, sea plants and birds and create an acute world problem. On Dec 10.1948, the UNGA approved universal declaration of human rights with 32 articles including 2 articles on environment.
In 1965 the industrial countries, issued Tehran resolution in 12 articles on environment and poisonous gases as well as environment protection for human and animals. But problems increased due to industrial development and increasing factories that used fuel and produced smoke. Population explosion was another problem that impacted ecologic and ecosystem. In some countries certain essential measures including plantation of trees and construction of green parks were adopted.
Economic agricultural, industrial and commercial growth have always been together with environmental challenges that caused high global concerns.
On June 1992 representatives of the world 180 countries attended a UN conference on Environment and Development in Brazil and approved a resolution that included three conventions including Climate Change Convention (UNFCC), CBC and UNCCED aimed at environment protection, access to keep atmosphere constant.
Green house gases reduction impacts atmosphere and a certain time is essential so the eco-systems could adopt naturally the climate change and make sure that food safety has not been threatened and a sustainable economic development is achieved. At present 197 countries are its members within the UN. This resolution was implemented on March 21.1994 and ever since it has been called as COP.
In 1995 the first conference of COP was held in Berlin, Germany in which the participants exchanged views on climate with four articles plus several sub-resolutions.
On Feb 16.2005 another conference was held in Germany to decide on reduction of green house gases. In 2008 and 2012 other conferences were held in Doha that amended protocols including new commitments for implementation of protocols from 2012-2020, implementation of green house gases reduction and reforms in laws for its actual implementation and environment protection.
In these conference, 37 industrial and developed countries promised to take essential steps for reduction of green house gases and warming and other cases that damage global environment.
According to Afghanistan constitution 15th article, the government is obliged to take necessary steps for protection of forests and improvement of environment.