The Kabul Times.

A look at the concept of government and its aspects in political science

Government is the highest manifestation of sovereignty and power in a country. Many consider the concept of a state equal as being the same for the government due to lack of understanding in political science. While government is solely a part and goverment is an abstract concept, which is part of the government. Abdul Rahman Alam, in his book” Foundations of Political Science”, has made this subject very well known. But the basic question here is the extent of our understanding of the concept of government. Perhaps all human societies have a kind of state. But for many, the concept of state as the most basic component of a social order remains unknown. Our goal is to use the concept of goverment, the use of this important concept in a broader and more general sense than the legislative and executive institutions, which raises the grounds for very serious discussions. It discusses is government well know based on its definition and concepts for the human society? Is this a real meaningful term for the human societies? And is there a comprehensive definition of the concept of government, its specific features and its basic elements? The present paper is trying to address each of the questions in its entirety and explain to end this controversy for the intellectuals, which has raised due to the lack of knowledge and understanding in the required extent. Dariush Ashuri, in the Encyclopedia of Political Science, defined the government as: “The structure of a power that has a certain domination in a given land of certain people with specific geography, and, internally, maintains order and security and, in the external sense, safeguards the integrity of the land and the interests of the nation and of all its citizens “Perhaps this is the most complete definition of government that addresses the main tasks of government, namely maintaining political and social cohesion, solving conflict and controversies, trying to achieve universal goals and trying to adapt to new circumstances. Therefore, in order to accomplish these policies and goals, governments resort to mechanisms that each one views in terms of their performance in different ways. For example, the free state, the welfare state, the minimal government, the Polis government, the interim government, and the successor government of various types of government in the political arena, each with different methods of implementing the tasks. Since the most important aspect of the rule of government is the enactment and implementation of laws in society, the topic of power is very important. It is here that power should be discussed in its true sense, and the resources and tools of power and empowerment in a society should be well-known and evaluated. The discussion of power with its contextual grounds has been the central issue of intellectual and academic communities, since power forms the sovereignty that is one of the main debates of the consistency of the foundations of government.
Another definition by the government is by Max Weber’s definition. In his opinion, government is “the exclusive institution of the legitimate use of power, which is located in a particular land and is within a set of institutions that has particular sense of sovereignty”. In his opinion, the authority of government as a sovereign within the country is unique and particular. The division of sovereignty will mean the division of government. To many people, government is in a society oriented towards a collective good and has a general public interest in its views. Although many, such as collectivist and individualist anarchists, consider the existence of government as a source of injustice and a source of tyranny and despotism, and encourages human societies to cooperate and collaborate, but the history of human societies implies the necessity of government. This is because government, in the opinions of the people of the territory, has a series of special tasks that no other political and social institution can do those. Maintaining order, security and stability, protecting the natural rights of the people of the community, creating and maintaining social reciprocity, providing the minimum welfare and comfort, and so on. There are different theories about the concept of state. Some political realists and Marxists consider government as a tool of coercion. Others have basically considered government, legal and legitimate. In recent interpretations, government describes the organization of welfare and comfort. In this sense, government can be described as a multidimensional, complex and concept that does not have the same foundation as other institutions have. There has been much debate about the origins of the governments. Some are considered to be an organic phenomenon, and some others are considered as phenomena of instrumentation. Organized theory emphasizes that a government like humans, animals, and plants is a natural organism that has three aspects of the interconnection between components, the growth and development of the inner and inner ends of the goal. According to this view, government is not an instrument that man has created for certain purposes, but also a family and a civil society, a system that is self-evolving, and contains superior ends of partial and individual ends. Hence, in this view, government is not the enemy of liberty but is the protector and guardian of liberty. Aristotle in ancient Greece and Hegel of the new century were theoreticians of the government theory. But in instrumental theory, government is the product of human action, a tool that man has made for certain purposes. In this theory, as a result of the social contract, government is the body responsible for ensuring order and security in the world; government provides something that nature cannot provide, and it is peace, security and civil liberty. Hence, there is a governmentfor man, not a man for the government. From other theorists, this theory can be seen from John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, two English philosopher. According to Hobbes, since people were in a natural state of war, their lives and their security were not secured, they demanded peace and security by their foresight and their wisdom, and they fought for the defense of this right and made it a character, the Third-party legal rights, which are governments. In general, the government is the tool used by the dominant class to maintain its power and social interests. This is in fact a turning point in Marxist theories, which are related to a tool-based conception for the classes.
Here, in order to better understand the conception of government, it is necessary to discuss the issues of the government in a comprehensive way. The fundamentals of government are based on it and structures its core assets. Because these are the foundations and aspects of government, which can decouple and disassociate its basic form. There are in total four types of government as following:
1 Aspect of compulsion
2 Aspect of ideology
3 Public aspects (supply of services and works)
4 Private aspects (nature of economic function)
1.Aspect of compulsion: Some see this as the most important and most basic aspect of government. Because the government is essentially a refractory phenomenon and it seems impossible to enforce it without compulsion. Although the anarchist, idealistic, and Marxist theories have criticized and defaced the government, the emphasis is on the inevitability of the coercive form of government in these theories. In the opinion of the political scholars, the lack of countervailing power in government has led to an uprising and overwhelmingly, as a matter of fact, its awe and insight as a provider of order and security. In fact, the burden of coercion in all states is heavier, and these ideologies are justifiable for the policy of the governments. The government is necessarily forced to resort to self-defense in order to protect its body. Governments at any time, even at times of peace, which are free of violence, take advantage of their oppressive face and use it to provide order and security. From the point of view of political science and political theory, power in the sense of coercion is threefold:
First: instrumental force
Second: structural force
Third: ideological force
First instrumental force: This is a one-dimensional coercion. It forces one another to compel. In fact, coercion is a tool that imposes the application of the use of material and visible means of government. Usually, governments prefer not to resort to instrumental means, except in special situations that no longer exist. Compulsion involves the entire material means of power that provides the basis for the expansion of government ‘s internal coherence and reduces the risk of collapse and falling out. This tool includes military and police forces and prisons.
Second Structural Compulsion: This is a two-dimensional coercion. Because the prerequisite force employs its will in the rules, and then forcedthe other side which becomes enforced. This type of coercion includes the entire guideline that is embedded in the law and government does not need to resort to force to do so. In this case, the number of tool applications is reduced and the grounds for disobedience by which governments resort to the use the force to curb it. For example, the rules for not holding labor strikes and so on.
Third ideological force: This is a three-dimensional coercion. In other words, the agent of compulsion employs his power and will within ideological devices, and then ideological messages target the mind of the side of coercion and convinces him, and then the side of coercion acts in accordance with its own ideas. In this case, the individual, in addition to not knowing that he is compelled, does not naturally regard his obedience to government orders. This means that the government is the ultimate refinement of government, which, without resorting to force and spending, will be able to convey the will of government to the citizens. This type of coercion is made in the form of an ideological conspiracy and non-deterministic. Many governments have propaganda devices that undermine the consistency and durability of these governments.
2. Ideological aspects: All governments use propaganda devices to survive and expand their sphere of influence. These devices have a duty to make the mainstream intellectual and ideological programs of the device governed by the public action plan and make the minds an important tool for doing so. For this, the media, publications, and tribal stations of government officials are always trying to transform the policies of the ruling class into public culture. They are trying to inject public opinion into the minds of every citizen and mentally promote it. This aspect may be promoted to some extent and legitimized by the ruling apparatus: First, the legitimacy of governments may be within the group. That is, the ruling apparatus, using the propaganda machine, considers itself right and defends its functions as a means of achieving national interests.
Second, the legitimacy of governments may be outright, and the performance of governments is endorsed by outside groups. This can be promoted by various means. For example, people’s obedience to the ruling government may be due to fear, intimidation, self-interest or personal concern. The ideological aspect that governments use to legitimize themselves and their practices is one of its most important figures.
3.Public Aspect (Supply of Services and Works): It has previously been noted that the main functions of the government are to maintain political and social cohesion, resolve conflicts and controversies, attempt to achieve common goals and try to adapt the new circumstances. These principles and practices actually represent the main faces of governments in the political arena. Efforts to maintain and consolidate the cohesion and political and social unity among members of society and prevent the emergence of divergent elements that can endanger the survival and stability of government are among the tasks of government. The resolution of conflicts through the justice system among members of the community is one of the duties of a government. Governments, by resorting to a refractory form of structural and instrumental coercion, are trying to minimize the extent of conflicts among members of society. It is only in the event of a crisis that the government can be considered as the only institution with the legal authority of all people to judge and enforce jurisdiction. Only governments can afford to supply and provide the basic needs of citizens in a country and meet their needs. Governments are working to achieve common goals through short-term, long-term and medium-term policies and programs. Government is the only institution with legal competence which, with planning and cost of expenses, seeks to achieve the general goals, on the one hand, creates the order and security for its members, and, on the other hand, by pursuing four main goals of its economic policies. The four main objectives of economic policy are as follows:
1. Economic growth, which means increasing production and national income;
2. Economic stabilization with the aim of controlling prices and preventing inflation;
3. Providing full employment that increases purchasing power and is considered in the liberal societies except social justice;
4. Maintaining a balance of external payments aimed at avoiding fractions of budget and minimum reliance on foreign lending.
4. Private aspect (Economic Functional Nature): Because of the fact that in every class society that benefits from unique economic and political privileges and significant influence over government policies, the private aspect of government cannot be ignored. These groups have access to strategic and privileged positions that add to their influence on the governing system. Because of the core functions of the government, the maintenance of order and security, and the defense of territorial integrity against external aggression, it is difficult to imagine that the efficiency of governments will be the same for all groups and classes. Because there is no doubt that governments, along with other faces, have a private aspect. And these groups have a direct role in government policy or sometimes government as a means to achieve its own goals. Governments are faced with private faces in the group of individuals and groups, and they are individuals and groups that sometimes make the government in their hands.
Therefore, the nature of governments and their mode of operation is based on the type of government, and is in line with the aspects that governments often engage in doing their work and implementing a variety of policies. Governments are, in fact, the cornerstone of human performance and formulate a significant amount of active elements of human gatherings. The elements of such a state-nation and country-are the main components of a political and social process and give it a political smell. Sources:
– Ashuri, Dariush, Political Science Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, Tehran;
– Bashriya, Hossein, Volume I, Second, Teaching Political Knowledge;
– Alam, Abdul Rahman, the foundations of political science;
– Ardestani, Ahmad Bakhshi, Principles of Political Science.
 Abdul Naser Noorzad, Kabul University lecturer

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The Kabul Times.