The 40 percent risk of maternal mortality concerning women with severe anemia during pregnancy requires comprehensive preventive strategies to be elaborated.
Recognized by the WHO as a global problem with serious consequence for mothers and their babies, anemia gives rise to complex interrelated issues affecting motherhood and childhood.
The annual mortality rate for each of the 100,000-iron deficiency anemia in the 1990s was 46.8.
Today anemia during pregnancy represents a global public health challenge increasingly faced by developing countries.
Maternal anemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm birth and low birth weight rates. Consequently, it all results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rates. Doubling of low birth weight and 2 to 3-fold increase in perinatal mortality rates.
Anemia in pregnancy is considered as important contributor to maternal mortality or morbidity and low birth weight. The latter is likely to lead to increased infant mortality.
The maximum and minimum prevalence of severe anemia affecting pregnant women is 20 and 2.7 percent.
Directly or indirectly, anemia is responsible for 40 percent of maternal deaths.
The prevalence of anemia in South Asian countries is among the highest in the world. The WHO estimates that even among the South Asian countries India has the highest prevalence of anemia. We should emphasize that approximately half global maternal deaths due to anemia occur in South Asian countries. India contributes to about 80 percent of maternal deaths due to anemia in South Asia.
It is obvious that India’s contribution to both the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy and maternal deaths due to anemia is higher than the guaranteed size of it.
Considered as the most frequent maternal complication of pregnancy, anemia has as following risk factors:
– compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation.
– deficiency of vitamin B12,low BMI
– infection with ascariasis, infections such as malaria, HIV, and hookworm infestation
-deficient dietary consumption of foods fortified with iron,
-other nutritional deficiencies, respectively.
– low socioeconomic conditions and high parity.
Dr. Ghafoor Mina Abdul