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Home | Opinions | Culture | Kabul’s Bala Hissar a historical fort

Kabul’s Bala Hissar a historical fort

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Kabul’s Bala Hissar a historical fort
 This fortification or castle with strategic content and importance in Afghanistan, belonging to pre-Islamic era. This castle which is also known to old castle or Kabul fort, situated on a hill south-east of Kabul among 69° 11´303  of eastern longitude and 34°30´203  of northern latitude. Its remnants located on south western parts of Sherdarwaza and Asmayee mountains and on south eastern part on Emerald hill.
Although Balahisar fort has been repeatedly ruined in over the 1500 years and abandoned but no change appeared in its original design.   
Balahisar history: 
Locating on the southern parts of current Kabul and has been the inflaming cause of most wars in the history of old capital of Afghanistan. Despite of its unknown background, a Buddhis temple had existed there prior to construction of every fort or castle in current location of Balahisar. Some sources have considered background of this temple since 2ndto 5th century AD.
Although in the course of history, Kabul has not always been the capital of Afghanistan,but it has been one of the ancient cities of Afghanistan and this magnificent fort on Sherdarwaza and Asmayeemountains located along the old walls, indicate the city background and its strategic importance.
According to acknowledged historian Ahmad Ali Kohzad, quoting Italian historian Pader Gaspani, the fort original foundationwas laid down apparently one and half century prior to Islam during the reign of Hayatelluh era in which there were walls on the top of mountains certainly for protection of the fort and castle. During the Islamic era, since the outset to Saffarids dynasty, although the history of this fort is not separated from the history of Kabul city and since 32 HQ to 253 HQ Kabul had been clashing with Arab armies but there is no information on the situation of Balahisar until the 4th century.
According to RazaqMamoon, following advent of Islam, the Arab armies had tried many times to occupy Kabul and settle in it but failed. The Kabul kings respectively had been living and ruling during 200 years of war and hit within the walls and behind fortifications. Sometimes they reluctantly converted to Islam while sometimes they reconverted to their original religion.
Ultimately, the army of Baghdad Califate led byYaqooblais Saffari invaded Kabul on 258 H.S and the then king Ratbail Shah ordered thousands Buddhic and Brahmani volunteer to establish a strong fortification and thus long defensive walls were built on the topof Sherdarwaza and Asmayee mountains near Balahisar that reflected the firm intention of Kabul inhabitants against Arab invaders. But Yaqooblais used a trick and in as a reconciliation gesture attacked Ratbail Shah the then Kabul ruler and before the eyes of both armies beheaded him. Afterwards, many temples were plundered. Some narrations say that whenever Yaqoob returned to Kerman, he had confiscated over 50 golden and priceless idols from Kabul which was occupied. 
Whenever the domination of Arabs was relaxed on non-Arab territories, Kabul was occupied by local rulers with all its strong fortifications.
Ultimately the Gengaze misfortune swallowed and annihilated Iran and Khorasan and transaxonian beautiful cities respectively and his successors managed to influence Kabul. In 768 H.S some Mongol rulers clashed each other in Kabul. The fort was occupied by Amir TemorGorgan soldiers and he left the fort for his sons Shahrokh, Pir Mohammad, Jehangir and their children.
Since 4th-8th centuries, Kabul was ruled by Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Choghtayees and Elkhanid Kings, but until the era of Amir Temor (771-807) no precise information is available on Kabul situation.
Two rulers of Kabul PoladBoqa and Aqbooqa rioted against Amir Hussein (died in 772) who ruled large parts of eastern Afghanistan and sheltered in BalaHisar.
Temor who in that time was one of the leaders of Hussein army, fight them, defeated them and Temor conqured Kabul.
After Temor, several Gorkani princes including Ologhbeg (died in 907) son of Sultan Abu Sayeed, Mohammad MoqeenArghoon son of Mir Zamoon settled in BalaHIssar and ruled Kabul. In 910 Zahiruddin Mohammad Babur conquered Kabul and he was surrendered. 
 

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